Glossary

Accident frequency rate
The total number of accidents at work per one million hours worked. 

Accident Investigation Board (OTKES)
An office subordinate to Finland’s Ministry of Justice. The Accident Investigation Board investigates all major accidents in Finland regardless of their nature, as well as all aviation, maritime and rail accidents and their incidents. www.onnettomuustutkinta.fi

Biodiesel
A fuel refined from renewable natural raw materials that can be used in the same way as diesel fuel.

Bridge moving
The bridge is built beside the road or railway and when it is completely ready it is moved into place using special equipment. The benefit of the bridge moving technique is that it disrupts traffic as little as possible.

Carbon dioxide, CO2
A greenhouse gas that is produced by using fossil fuels and causes climate change.

CEE Region
Countries of Central and Eastern Europe

CER
Community of European Railway and Infrastructure Companies. Abbreviated as CER.

Climate change
A change occurring in the earth’s climate or in a local climate. The expression is nowadays usually used in connection with global warming caused by human activity.

Combined transports
In combined transports, the freight remains in the same container or unit from departure to destination while being carried by at least two different means of transport. Long terminal-to-terminal transportation is by rail or water, while short distribution and pick-up carryings are by road.

Cross border traffic
Logistics traffic crossing the borders between Finland and Russia, the Baltic countries and the countries of Central and Eastern Europe.

Economy driving
An economic style of driving aimed at reducing energy consumption. In practice this means utilizing the terrain, the running time available and the kinetic energy of the train effectively, as well as predicting oncoming traffic situations.

Electric traction
A locomotive powered by electricity or an electric trainset.

Electric trainset
Sm1 and Sm2 commuter trains and city trains (Sm4 and Sm5), and long-distance Pendolino (Sm3) trains. Also called electric trains.

Emissions trading
A procedure whereby production plants that emit pollutants are obliged to hold a certain number of emission permits for each unit of the volume of pollutants that they emit, and these plants may trade in these permits. Emission trading aims to limit harmful emissions in a cost-effective way.

Energy-efficiency
The environmental impacts of a product in relation to the service or economic benefit produced

Environmental certificate
A certificate testifying that a company’s environmental management system has been audited and that it conforms to the ISO 14001 standard.

Filling rate
A measurement of the load carried in relation to the maximum load.

Finnish Transport Agency (LiVi)
The Finnish Transport Agency, a civil service department under the authority of the Ministry of Transport and Communications, started operations on 1 January 2010. The functions of the Finnish Rail Administration were transferred to the railway section of the Finnish Transport Agency, which is responsible for maintaining, constructing and developing the railway network. The agency is also responsible for the condition of the railway network and for traffic control. www.liikennevirasto.fi

Finnish Transport Safety Agency (TraFi)
The Finnish Transport Safety Agency, under the authority of the Ministry of Transport and Communications, began operations on 1 January 2010. The functions of the Rail Safety Agency were transferred to TraFi’s railway sector. TraFi’s duties include developing rail safety. www.trafi.fi

Fossil fuels
Fuels produced from carbon-based, non-renewable natural resources or their derivatives. Such fuels include petrol, diesel oil, light fuel oil, coal and natural gas.

FTL-Rail
Total solution for logistics customers, combining rail and road logistics services in the most appropriate way.

Green electricity
A common name for electricity produced with renewable forms of energy such as with water or wind power, wood fuels or solar cells. The production of green electricity causes no net emissions of carbon dioxide, so it does not have an adverse impact on the climate. Only electricity produced from existing hydroelectric plants is classified as green electricity, because the building of new dams and reservoirs has an environmental impact.

Greenhouse gases
Gases that accelerate climate change when released into the atmosphere. The greenhouse gases produced by VR Group’s operations consist mainly of carbon dioxide.

GRI
GRI, the Global Reporting Initiative, is a system of international reporting guidelines for social responsibility. Its goals include standardizing the way matters are measured in reporting and raising social responsibility reporting practices to the same standard as for financial statement reporting globally.

GSM-R
(GSM –Railway) A digital railway communications system that functions in the GSM network for train drivers, shunting foremen and traffic controllers to keep in contact.

Hazardous substances
Substances that can injure people, harm the environment or damage property because of their toxic, corrosive, explosive or flammable properties, the danger of radiation they pose, or other detrimental characteristic.

Heritage landscape
Countryside that has been shaped by traditional land use methods, such as cultivation or pasturing. Traditional landscapes include meadows, fields, grazing land, woodland pasture, or coastal pasture.

LIPASTO
A system developed by the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) for calculating the exhaust emitted and energy consumed by traffic in Finland. lipasto.vtt.fi/ 

Marshalling yard operations
Work in the preparation and maintenance of passenger and freight trains. Includes shunting.

Occupational health and safety certificate, OHSAS certificate
A certificate testifying that the company’s occupational health and safety management system has been audited in conformance with the OHSAS 18001 standard.

OSJD
The Organisation for Railway Cooperation (OSJD). A railway association formed by Eastern European, CIS and some Asian countries.

Outplacement centre
The outplacement centre supports employees facing redundancy as the result of the restructuring programme in finding new employment, for example through individual counselling, coaching in making job applications, and vocational training.

Passenger-kilometre, pkm
A unit of measurement for passenger services representing a rail journey of one kilometre by one passenger.

Power cars
Power cars combine the features of a locomotive and a passenger coach. The power car has a driver’s cab and seats for passengers. With a power cab, trains can be driven from either end without having to change the locomotive. A train must always have a locomotive at the other end.

Renewable energy
Renewable energy is energy that is obtained from continuously renewable natural sources, such as flowing water, wind, the sun and wood.

Restructuring programme
Through its restructuring programme VR Group aims to respond to changes in the market and improve the Group’s profitability, for example by raising efficiency in its logistics activities and improving the travel experience of passenger service customers.

RFID
Radio Frequency IDentification. A system that uses radio frequency for identifying and tracking goods, vehicles etc. An electronic tag is fixed to wagons and locomotives that can be read from the moving train by a hand-held terminal or a reader installed by the track. The system improves the tracking of carryings and increases wagon turnover.

Safety at work briefing
Supervisors meeting with their personnel to go over actual accidents at work and near-miss events and to discuss current safety-related issues.

Shunting
The moving of wagons and coaches and assembling of train units in marshalling yards, and also supplying wagons to customers for loading and unloading.

Telematics
Simultaneous use of information processing and telecommunications. The word telematics is derived from the words telecommunications and informatics.

Tonne-kilometre, tkm
A performance measurement for freight services representing one tonne carried over a distance of one kilometre.

Tractive stock
A common name used to refer to locomotives, trainsets, shunting engines and track machinery that are driven by onboard machine power.

Track safety equipment
The track network has a variety of safety equipment for ensuring the safe passage of trains. This traffic control and safety equipment includes automatic train protection systems, marshalling yard and railway line controls, and warning devices at level crossings.

Track superstructure
Track superstructure generally consists of ballast, usually crushed stone, and the track. The ballast keeps the track in the correct attitude, distributes the load and forms an even load-bearing base for the tracks. The track consists of sleepers, rails, fixing and extension parts, as well as switches and other special structures.

Transit traffic
Traffic passing through Finland en route for a third country. Most of VR Transpoint’s transit traffic comes from Russia and passes westwards via Finnish ports.

Transport of dangerous goods, TDG
The transportation of hazardous substances. See ‘Hazardous substances’.

UIC
The International Union of Railways. www.uic.asso.fr

UITP
International Association of Public Transport. www.uitp.org